09
Mar
10

On air: Violence in Nigeria

Two questions appear to be at the centre of your discussions of the weekend’s shocking violence near Jos. They are: 1) Why is it happening? and 2) why isn’t more attention being paid to it? (Though Hillary has now commented.)We’ll ask both, as well as hear about our sister’s show Africa Have Your Say’s discussion on what now needs to be done to present such massacres happening again. Questions and comments welcome… and pls leave your number if you want to come on air. We won’t publish the number online.


51 Responses to “On air: Violence in Nigeria”


  1. 1 patti in cape coral
    March 9, 2010 at 15:41

    I heard the reports on the BBC and it was just sickening. I heard that most of the victims were women and children. I have heard theories that the violence is religious and others that this is sectarian, but it just seems to me that these are excuses people give so they can give free reign to their violence. What can the average person such as myself do to help?

  2. 2 Jaime Saldarriaga
    March 9, 2010 at 15:43

    To me this is a very touchy issue because it looks like it involves religious fanaticism. I believe the religious leaders involved need to be interrogated in order to find out the real motives of this horrendous massacre. A civil investigation should be done.

  3. March 9, 2010 at 15:54

    I have received the impression that there are frequent Muslim-on-……. (Christian, Jewish, Hindu) conflicts and frequent stories of Muslims pushing others out of the way. Yet I rarely if ever hear of Christians attacking Muslims, Hindus attacking Muslims, or Jews attacking Muslims.

    Is this impression incorrect? And is this the situation in Nigeria, where the Muslims are pushing for each province to be “Muslim” with Sharia and exclusively Islamic education?

  4. March 9, 2010 at 16:04

    You see what’s happening in Jos (which is also my hometown and as such I and my friends are survivors of this and the previous conflicts in Jos) is not all about Jos. It is an extension of the flaws of the Nigerian Constitution and system which grants all Nigerians citizenship rights which are supposedly enjoyable anywhere within the confines of the country.
    At the same time, the Nigerian political system firmly recognises certain category of rights which are to be enjoyed by ‘indigenes’ only. The Constitution gave this practice of ‘indigene/settler’ dichotomy the force of law when it states that only indigenes could be appointed as ministers from each State (implying settlers are excluded).
    So we operate a system which recognises 150 million Nigerians as citizens and also as indigenes and settlers of various States, towns and communities. I don’t know what must be done for peace to return to Jos finally, but I know these questions need urgent answers in Nigeria:
    1. Are ‘citizens’ and ‘indigenes’ as used in the Nigerian Constitution (1999) synonyms?
    2. If no, is there any right an indigene enjoys which a citizen does not?
    3. Is there any distinction between the rights ‘citizens’ and ‘settlers’ enjoy (or are deprived of) in Jos and what obtains elsewhere in Nigeria?
    4. Is there any justification for the Nigerian constitution to continue to remain secular when Nigerians are obviously so religious?

    • 5 patti in cape coral
      March 9, 2010 at 19:13

      Hello Nengak- Which religion would you advocate for the Nigerian constitution?

    • 6 B.D
      March 11, 2010 at 03:26

      Nengak, with all due respect, you people are always giving this crisis a legal backing., let’s call a spade a spade. This is absolutely religious crisis. I am not an indigene of plateau state but I reside here in your home state, Jos. if this is an indigene/ settler affairs why are the Muslims attacking and killing other tribes that are not Muslims? why do we frequently hear of religious crisis in the northern parts of Nigeria not the south or east or west ( which are predominantly xtians.) Why did they burnt down churches, Igbos shops and homes during the January crisis. Let us all in Nigeria look inward with the view to addressing this inhumane and barbaric acts.
      My heart still bleeds for the poor women and kids.

  5. 7 gary indiana
    March 9, 2010 at 16:19

    Are Nigerians fundamentally different from other humans? I can’t believe this is the case. As clever as they are, humans are rarely capable of absolutely unpredictable, or shocking as it is named, behavior. This is simply ethnic and religious warfare fueled by ignorance and fomented by self-serving leaders.
    g

  6. 8 Razz
    March 9, 2010 at 16:22

    Sad to say, but I assume that ‘burn out’ has something to do with the lack of coverage. I am as faithful as I can be about staying informed on world events but the stories, pics and comments are tending to get to even me. My capacity for outrage or indignation, is diminished, what with Haiti, Chile, Turkey, ongoing Iraq/Afgan issues and seemingly on and on. Jos, while sad and frustrating, gets short shrift.
    As for why it’s happening, I am grateful to Nengak for enlightening me as to the Nigerian Constitutional issues. I was unaware that discrimination has been so codefied and perhaps, this (Jos) can be a follow-on.

  7. 9 Anakor Chigozie ( Lagos Nigeria)
    March 9, 2010 at 16:34

    @ patti in cape coral,
    U may well help (if you can) to push education and civilization to these parts of the nation where humans ( though no longer look like apes) but still behaves like apes. How ever,

    when I read that the town where this recent attack took place is the home town of the incumbent state governor, I dawned on me that it is as much political as it is religious.

    And when we heared that the cofew lasted till the time of the attack ( but that no military men were on patrols during / at the time of the attack states that politically, some dots were delibrately not fixed.

    What more, Nigeria has obvious failed as a united entity as Tribalism drawns the suppluses we have, why dont we make things easy for ourselves. As religios as we claim to be, and as culturally diversufied as we found ourselves, we have not allowed a REVOLUTION take it`s course towards the problems that pose Division as the only solution.

    We are not told the real numbers that have been lost in the so called sectarian violence but if you check it is not exageration that the MASS BURIALS was done to shield the outside societies from the reality.

  8. 10 Nigel
    March 9, 2010 at 16:34

    Maybe Akiva didn’t hear the whole BBC report which raised the probability that it was a revenge attack for one the Christians made on the Muslims some time ago. Equally brutal and more costly in lives. We can’t just simply wish these things away, they go back to before the time that people on the British Isles were painting themselves blue and it is only strong moral leadership and as Nengak says, “changes to the constitution” that are going to be able to bring it to an end over time.

  9. 11 John Henry
    March 9, 2010 at 16:50

    Well said, Gary!

    I remember being in Toronto and attending a ceremony where a Reverend used mass hypnosis techniques to captivate her congregation. What an experience! I am sure that in this suggestive state of mind the congregation could have been influenced to perpetrate any manner of individual and collective actions against any perceived foe.

    Unfortunate though it may be and whether it be in Nigeria, Canada or Europe the combination of religion and politics can act like a time bomb waiting to be ignited within the human mind. The world has a history of this type of activity.

  10. 12 Kingsley
    March 9, 2010 at 16:59

    While not justifying the killings in any way, I never read all through the Northern Ireland crisis that because of the violence there that there was violence in the United Kingdom. When you calculate the number of people being violently killed in the United States on a daily basis, Nigeria is still relatively safe. So equating violence in some communities in Jos to violence in Nigeria, a nation of over 140 million people is stretching things a bit too.

  11. 13 Muthee in Nairobi
    March 9, 2010 at 17:03

    Thanks Nengak for enlightening those in Africa and elsewhere who swallow everything the media churns out because that’s what the minds behind such atrocities want the world to believe.

    I think the current problem affecting Nigeria is replicated almost everywhere else in Sub-Saharan Africa, but other factors such religion(as is the case with Nigeria) determine the levels to which the bloody madness can go.

    But like you rightly stated, the problem lies in the constitutional and governance structures that our fledgling ‘democracies’ have adopted. In the pursuit of constitutional democracy, our lawmakers have made laws (mostly with the help of Western experts) that only serve to confuse and saw conflict among the people.

  12. 14 Nelson Isibor
    March 9, 2010 at 17:10

    It’s disheartening that when Nigeria makes International headlines, it’s not alwaysd for the right reasons. The Jos conflict paints a larger picture of the contraption called Nigeria. If we can’t all live in peace maybe the country should just split along several lines probably that will halt this needless waste of precious human lives.

  13. 15 Donnamarie in Switzerland
    March 9, 2010 at 17:13

    The Nigerian government was aware of the tensions on the Muslim/ Christian, settler/indigenous divide, after a massacre of around 200 Muslim settlers by Christian indigenous people recently. Retaliation was to be expected.

    This latest massacre could and should have been prevented. However, the Nigerian government has been paralyzed at the top, with the illness of the president and the uncertainty about the legitimacy of Goodluck Johnson’s custodianship.

    While the Nigerian government dithers, people on the religious/ethnic divide are being massacred. Government security forces cannot stop the religious and ethnic tensions–but they can and should be able to prevent predictable atrocities like what happened in Jos.

    And, speaking of religion, how is it that professed Christians and Muslims abandon their morals and slaughter one another indiscriminately?

  14. 16 Alan in AZ
    March 9, 2010 at 17:15

    @ Nengak

    I’ve heard this explanation before. I find this whole situation incomprehensible. Nigeria acts like a person cutting off their left hand because it’s not as perfect as the right hand. It diminishes the strength of the country to push away an asset to society. It must be difficult to see this happen no matter what side you are on.

    Is religion that big of a part of this or are they just using it to build the hatred?

  15. 17 Kingsley
    March 9, 2010 at 17:17

    British Colonialists starting with the amalgamation of Southern and Northern Nigeria grouped over 250 ethnic nationalities within the Nigerian State, each having its own language, culture, norms and practices. The occasional violence results from the friction that occurs as each group wants to protect its own interests at the expense of other groups and this generates tensions and conflicts. To worsen matters, we run a centralized system for resource allocation meaning that public funds are only channeled through the three tiers of Government, i.e. Federal, State and Local Governments that are creations of law leaving out the villages, communities, towns and cities where these ethnic nationalities reside. The groupings of these ethnic nationalities under these three structures are also done arbitrarily resulting in an unbridled fight for control of these resources with the attendant violence that goes with it. It would help if we had free and fair elections to ensure that the right people get to hold elective positions at the three tiers of government but that has not been the case. It would also help if resources are better allocated to the right causes that have to do with meeting the needs of Nigerians. Finally if Nigerians learn to see others as their brothers and sisters, it would make a whole lot of difference

  16. 18 Sergio Joaquim Dique
    March 9, 2010 at 17:29

    The history of law indicates in principle that laws were developed as a response to the evolutionary process of human beings. i.e, the traffic laws were developed once vehicles were invented and not before, such is with aviation and obviously marine laws.

    My point here is: agreeing with Nengak to some extent, there seem to be archaic laws in force in Nigeria, when the world has evolved to travelling to space.

    It is time that the Nigerian legislators sit and come up with current laws that will combat this insanity. Very strict and “harsh” laws, one might add. l would like to believe there are some genius out there who can come up with concepts that the Nigerians can work with. l mean world leaders.

  17. 19 Sefah Ato Welbeck,Ghana
    March 9, 2010 at 17:36

    The “Britishs” have a saying that’My country,right or wrong.” Ghana,my country also has a saying that,In all things your motherland first.It is high time since African leaders united themselves in policies and in actions.Reading most of the interesting comments,it will again fascinate you to know that,this violence is more political as it is religious.This is a violence which has its root in centuries ago.A violence between the Muslim-North and the Christians-South.May I move all the blame to the Westerners,with their strong imperialist arm and their new form of colonizing Africa(Neo-colonialism) through our own people by dividing and ruling the people of their motherland.I am a West-Africana,and I do find these things most awful and heart-rendering,when did violence on our soil become a thing of our time?
    The most painful aspect of all is when innocent people lost their lives,not to talk of children,women and indeed pregnant women.When two elephants engage in a brawl,it is the earth which suffers.
    Religious Fanatics are always willing to show superiority over the other religion which bit by bit would one day pulled down the castle.Then we would regret doing such thing but in that sense action of destruction has already taken its rightful cause.
    Most of these people for a fact are unemployed,not to talk of nihilist(people picking up arms in their interest for their survival due to total neglect)
    For now,there is a question I would like to ask since much attention from the West is mostly found lacking,and the question is whether this feud of Nigeria,it is not only JOS,but other equally populous states as well.That whether is politically-backed,fanatically-backed,Sheer interlopers-engagement.The question is WHO IS TO BLAME?
    God bless Nigeria,God bless Ghana,and God bless West Africa. Amen

  18. 20 audre
    March 9, 2010 at 17:43

    The news reports here said that this attack was in retaliation for an attack by the Christians. As we are heavily into Muslim bashing, at this time in history, that little gem may lie buried on the back pages.

    Religion has much for which to answer, even when, as I suspect, it is being used by politicians for political advantage.

    Someone said we are not far from the Apes. I beg to disagree, as Apes would probably never be as violent to other Apes as humans are to other humans.

  19. March 9, 2010 at 17:46

    Pardon me if I sound crass here, but the conflicts in northern Nigerian are almost becoming something of an annual festival. Almost like clockwork, every year hundreds of people succumb to such violent deaths in the name of religious conflicts. What kind of God are we talking about here? The God of Christians and the Allah of Muslims is a peaceful Being and will be most ashamed of his creation. I really wish these folks in northern Nigeria will learn a thing or two from northern Cameroon. There, Christians and Muslims live with it other peacefully and never have you heard of such conflicts. Are these super-natural human beings?

  20. March 9, 2010 at 17:52

    Thanks Muthee in Nairobi,
    Luckily for me, I have the luck of reading about Jos in the media; I am a survivor of one of the earlier rounds of this madness and I have family and friends in Jos as we blog.

  21. 23 nora
    March 9, 2010 at 17:54

    When we read about a European killer, he or she has a name, a background, we ask why that individual killed. Relatives and neighbors are interviewed, etc. Who, what, when, where, why applies to Africa too. While a group was involved, names and proclivities should be available at some point. Christian v. Muslim just does not cut it as an explanation. Mass homicide differs from an individual murder only in scale. While politics and religion are violent places, only details of real life in Jos will serve up a real explanation.

    The bloggers who cite the confusing situation of Goodluck Johnson and the 1999 law are beginning the intelligent part of the discussion and I would really like more insights from Jos.

  22. March 9, 2010 at 17:56

    @ Alan in AZ :
    I find it hard to comprehend too, Alan. I doubt if my lines were meant as an explanation seeing that it contains more questions than answers!

  23. March 9, 2010 at 18:08

    What I don’t understand, really is that there are Muslims, Christians, Hindus, and every kind of religious people everywhere on earth. Why is it that the seem to live in relative peace in some countries but not so in some countries or regions?

  24. 26 John in Salem
    March 9, 2010 at 18:23

    When violence reaches this level the question of whatever triggered it is largely irrelevant.
    This is bloodlust – the worst form of mass hysteria known – and it has it’s own rules and it’s own logic. There is a sense of powerlessness on both sides, of being caught up in a machine of death, and no one is naturally immune. The veneer of “civilized” falls away and the beast takes over until it runs out of victims.
    THIS is where the focus of our so-called “war on terror” should really be, because the biggest threat to civilization isn’t the individual whacko with a bomb vest – it’s the monster inside each of us that we should fear.

  25. March 9, 2010 at 18:30

    According to the BBC it was a revenge attack.I would advise Nengak to hold on,vice like,to the secularism.Secularism won’t stop you being religeous,nor will it stop anyone praying as many times as they wish,Secularism will give a reason not to kill for religeous reasons.Religeon must be defended,all branches.But Nigerian laws should be secular.Of course,that will not wear with Islamic extremists,but then,Islamists are not all extreme,are they?

  26. 28 Ibrahim in UK
    March 9, 2010 at 18:38

    Individuals feel emotions of anger, frustration, desperation etc. but it takes a political leader to exploit those emotions into a massacre to serve his own interests. Find the leaders who are creating the “us and them” mindset and hold them to account, and replace them by leaders who can create the “all of us together” mindset.

  27. 29 viola
    March 9, 2010 at 19:01

    The government of Nigeria should respond immediately. If it does not, people are on their own. That is how violence is unleashed. Violence breeds violence.

    That doesn’t let the killers off the hook. They are responsible for their actions. The government’s responsibility is to create conditions that discourage violence through education and re-education, a proper justice system, and smart social policies with regard to wealth distribution.

    When tensions arise between differing groups of people the country needs to have, already in place, institutions to intervene before killing starts, and force the groups to work out differences through talk, talk, talk. Leaders of churches and mosques come to mind as institutions that could do that. And should.

  28. 30 amos (NIGERIA)
    March 9, 2010 at 19:18

    My country is SICK. A revolution is in the making. ENOUGH IS ENOUGH. This yearly cycle of unending violence has got to STOP. The response of out Government often at times is LAMB.

  29. 31 Eric (san francisco / KALW)
    March 9, 2010 at 19:24

    at 10 or 15 minutes past the hour some guest or caller brings up colonialism…. Nigeria has been independent for fifty years. Time to find someone else to blame.

  30. 32 Larry
    March 9, 2010 at 19:35

    I am an American of Nigerian decent and i feel the cause of the continuous tragedy in Nigeria is simply due to the social injustice that many Nigerians suffer of which certainly should be attributed to the incompetency of the Nigerian leadership

    It is unfortunate, but history will continue to repeat its self if the county’s government cannot be held accountable on anything let alone protecting its citizens.

    Larry
    Chicago

  31. 33 Kenneth Ingle
    March 9, 2010 at 19:35

    The victims of such killings are seldom responsible for the hate which leads to these crimes. They are often just easy targets, in the wrong place at the wrong time.
    What very clear is, is the fact that members of religions which claim to be peaceful, are causing trouble all over our world. Who can possibly believe anything their leaders say?

  32. 34 david
    March 9, 2010 at 19:39

    The reason the world community is unconcerned with Jos, with the exception of France to a degree, is because, of course, Jos does not produce oil.

  33. 35 @guykaks
    March 9, 2010 at 20:52

    Who cares?This is the same primitive evils we commit in the name of religion/tribe/clan..Nigerians are telling the world that resorting to fighting helps.What afoolish idea they have.The killings should be condemned and the law enforcing agents should be more keen to protect innocent civilians.

  34. March 9, 2010 at 21:13

    Religious crisis is as old as Nigeria itself. Ojukwu was forced to declare Biafra in 1967 because of the gruesome massacre of the Igbos of the southern Nigeria by the Muslim north. Since them, events has shown that bad blood is easy to form but difficult to flush out especially in a society where politicians are brazenly corrupt and the people poor and illiterate.

  35. March 9, 2010 at 22:31

    I am sadden by the event in Jos-Nigeria. Similar issue happened in my home Voinjama – Liberia on February 26, 2010. Some trouble makers just took upon themselves in the name of religion, went on burning churches and in the process killed few people. It will not be fair to lay blame at the door of the government of Nigeria for what has happened. Such issues has been occuring in Nigeria in the past. The problem we have is, there are people who will stop at nothing but do others harm. The resolution of such issue demands the involvement of all the stakeholders. For religious issues, I believe the religious leaders have to help in sensitizing there followers to stop killing or harming others in the name of religion. God in no religion recommands the taking of life by another person. No one is able to creat life and therefore should never take another person’s life.

  36. 38 Colin L Beadon
    March 10, 2010 at 01:19

    David, you are talking Bull.
    The problem, as one close Nigerian aquaintance who I worked alongside for a couple years told me at about 2 a.m. one morning. He said. ‘Colin. The Nigerians were not ready for independence.’
    We were oilmen, ate and slept in the same rooms, like I have done with others who were far from my own shade or people, and worked long hours in a dangerous job together, often on offshore rigs, for days, often months on end.
    I tend to agree, sadly, with the evolutionary scientist Richard Dawkins. Religions ( I’ll also add population explosions) are the main reasons for the quite natural conflicts ever – growing , not only in Africa.
    Perhaps, such conflict, is nothing more than nature’s way of dealing with the problem of Population Explosion, religious conflict just being an added excuse. But Wow! Humans don’t want to hear or admit,…. to that.

  37. 39 Subhash C Mehta
    March 10, 2010 at 08:10

    There needs to be an immediate show of tolerance, by way of putting a neutral and central figure, revered/respected by most of the people in the affected region, who should be able to make the people to listen and his good counsel to prevail upon them. Poverty shows its ugly face in so many ways; the ugliest of them are intolerance, cruel exploitation and violence. Besides, the people of Nigeria, in general, seem to have lost faith in their politicians; so, they are disgusted and reckless, and not tolerant about so many things in and/or with their lives, which wouldn’t have been so under normal and congenial/happy circumstances; The Jos incidents are just one of those things.

  38. March 10, 2010 at 09:36

    We are in the news again for the wrong reson. This madness has been tolerated for far too long. Political leaders are using the poor to perpetrate this kinds of evils while their own children are in the best schools in Europe and America. Those who were involved in the recent killings should be prosecuted and punished (this may never happen)

    • 41 Ingle
      March 10, 2010 at 13:01

      Mary, what a shame it is that what you say is right, but little is done by anyone to correct the situation.
      The really wise are few and far between. The clever rogues are many.
      We of normal intelligence often have the unfortunate habit of following the latter, believing them to be the former.
      Whatever comes now, i wish you luck.

  39. 42 Samuel
    March 10, 2010 at 12:48

    I lived in Jos for over 30 years and witness peace times and this horrific times. I am an indigene of the Plateau State not a Berom though, and understands very well what the problem of Jos is, you see, before the creation of Jos North and South, there was absolute peace in the region. Is a very big local government area with Beroms in majority, even then, Hausa-Fulani were elected into the local Government council.
    In 1991, Jos North-South were created, but the manner in which it was created led to what is Happening on Jos Plateau. Jos North (State Capital) was Created clearly to favor the Hausa-Fulani (Muslims) ethnic group. While the Berom and Afizere were carved out to Jos South. It then looked like the Hausa-Fulani had taken over their ancestral land. This then set the center stage for the problem. If only this problem can be fairly tackle, it will stop the carnage.

  40. 43 Amara from Nigeria
    March 10, 2010 at 14:05

    Ethnic clashes in Jos has been caused as a result of tribal segregation.Here in Nigeria,we do not see ourselves as Nigerians but rather as:Igbos,Hausas and Yorubas.If these crisis must come to a halt,we must learn to co-exist harmoniously no matter our ethnicity.

  41. 44 JanB
    March 10, 2010 at 16:06

    The problem isn’t a legacy of colonialism, nor is it a problem of Nigeria being a contraption. The real problems are inequality and, as usual in Africa, tribalism.

    The Nigerian government may not be able to change the tribal mindset of its citizens (though it could certainly try through education), but it can do something about the inequality: there should be one secular law for all Nigerians. All mentions of religions and ethnicity should be removed from the constitution, it’s a necessary first step towards peace and towards Nigeria becoming a real democracy.

  42. 45 David from Switzerland
    March 10, 2010 at 16:29

    Thanks to Samuel, who seems to see clear in this issue, along with those who point out the difference between settlers and citizens. It is the first time I hear of the Jos North-South issue. It would be interesting to know how many Muslim settlers have arrived in recent decades. With ethnic groups generally adhering to one religion, tribal conflic may seem a religious war. Islamisation of course is a valid concern for Christians, knowing that Schariah law has been implemented in the 12 Northern States.

  43. March 10, 2010 at 19:08

    Religion today has become one of the major killer diseases in the world. All the problems which result into violence are always perpetuated by the religious differences. See what is happening Iraq, Afghanistan, Malaysia, bombing of twin towers in the USA, Embassy in Nairobi and Dar el Salam, Pakistan and many other places where such motivated religious violence always keep on recurring. Today Nigeria has become the sanctuary where ugly religious wars raise their hideous heads all the times and those mindless and malicious individuals who always instigate the war by the name of religion in Nigeria should be apprehended and brought to book. I am really confused for what should be a solution to this problem of religious conflicts. The only solution I see and for the world communities to be at peace with one another they should discard and entirely forget religious beliefs, because they have done more harm than good to the humanity. God saves the world!

  44. 47 Jaime Saldarriaga
    March 10, 2010 at 22:30

    Those who did this massacre need to be identified by name an should be taken to court.

  45. 48 Babs Damisa
    March 11, 2010 at 03:41

    Jos that grew to see in a peaceful with aesthetic beauty turnout to be a garrison of warfare and bloodshed. Amid tears I shed, I call on our leaders to bring the perpetrators to book or the blood of the innocent children killed will speak against them.

  46. March 11, 2010 at 06:37

    This is appalling. I think over and over again and can’t get m head round it. How can one human being do this to another? Are people capable of such close up violence? I mean what goes through a persons mind when he’s chopping another with a machete? God help us all. This is barbaric beyond measure

  47. March 16, 2010 at 21:57

    The solution to this killings is to allow Republic of biafra to be free.every other thing you are saying means nothing.

  48. March 16, 2010 at 22:21

    Only evil people glory and boast in evil called One Nigeria.
    We can only co-exist harmoniously if our ethnicity and identity are respected.I am an igbo man, and every Nigerian knows it that the igbos and their brothers in the former Eastern Nigeria are BIAFRAN CITIZEN and you can not stop the desire of people to be free.The Yoruba has their own odua republic
    and the Hausas their Ariwa Republic let the country split in peace now.

    You people should stop writing nonsense thinking you can decieve the whole world.

    Nigeria is a failled experiment.


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