Live from Ghana: Do Africans need to ‘revolutionise their minds’?

We were up early this morning to appear on Skyy Power FM in Takoradi ahead of today’s show from Ghana. As the unerringly accurate weather forecast says every evening, ‘tomorrow will be sunny and hazy’ and so it was when we set off just before 7. More importantly, for the first time this week I have a little time to write to you properly. 



It’s not as ridiculous a question as it might sound. I know this is football not politics, but ask Germans what affect the 2006 World Cup had and they’ll tell you it fundamentally changed how the world saw Germany and how they felt about themselves. Here in Ghana the debate is not about the merits of holding this event (it’s almost universally welcomed) but about the impact it will have on how Ghanaians work and how they world views their work. It’s about proving what they can do. 

Do Africans need to change their attitude to work for their countries to develop? And will this tournament kick start the process in Ghana? 

Ghana has a Minister for Information and National Reorientation and her job is affect a cultural change that will be see Ghanaians develop better punctuality, more efficient business practices, better application at work and a culture of maintenance (this last point with specific reference to the four brand new stadiums here). Other African governments have similar ambitions. 

We met the head of a secondary school here who said Africans needs to ‘revolutionise their minds’ if their countries are too develop. He called ‘African time’ (in other words being late) as a ‘cancer’ which is holding the continent back. 

(If you want an example, when we arrived at Dynamite FM in Tarkwa on Monday and heard the presenter telling everyone World Have Your Say started at 5pm. ‘You’ve got the time wrong,’ we told him. ‘Don’t worry,’ he replied. ‘If I say 5 then all being well people will start arriving by 6.’) 

Some think the Africa Cup of Nations will help the Minister’s work immensely. 


Inkenson is a WHYS listener here in Takoradi. He’s written a post on the blog about how he believes an ‘attitudinal change’ towards work is coming. Have a read and post a reply to him.



I love this article. While some like Inkenson think attitudes to work are changing because of this tournament, it seems it’s not a universal view.  One worker argues that the day after a game should be work free: ‘We also worked as hard as the players by giving them the support so we deserve a holiday too”. As one boss said of his workers after the Black Stars (Ghana’s team) won, ‘we can force the horse to the river side but cannot force it to drink the water”. I’m sure WHYS Editor Mark feels that about us sometimes. 

If you’re in Africa, do attitudes need to change?

If you’re outside of Africa, do you care how Africans do business?


Skyy is the main media player in town and today’s show is from a fantastic auditorium at the back of Skyy House. It’s normally used for TV shows and rows of blue seats bank steeply in front of a small stage (which has a lectern I have no intention of using). The props for a game show called ‘Magic Numbers’ are all at the back of the stage. If the heat gets to me, I may start introducing you with ‘and in red box number 3 we have Lubna in Baghdad’. 


We’ve had some success of getting snaps onto Flickr. If you’d like to see where we’ve been and the people we’ve met and worked with, scroll down the front page of the blog a little to the Flickr link on the right.


It’s on the front-page of the Daily Graphic this morning.


We met a businessman yesterday who had four phones. I was impressed (and baffled) and asked him why. He said there are four main service providers and each are a client of his. So, as you can tell the network from your number, he always calls the companies using their phone network. Cunning. 


Giuliani and Edwards are gone and others are faltering. By the end of the next week we may know who’ll be fighting it out for the American Presidency. ‘Tuesday’ doesn’t’ do justice to the importance of February 5th (over 20 states are voting in primaries and caucuses) so the US media dubbed it Super Tuesday. We’re taking it one step further and having a Super Wednesday as well. We’ll be hearing your reaction to the results all day long on the blog, and almost certainly talking about it on air.  

Get latest on Super Tuesday here.

Goat, rice and pepper soup to those of you who got this far. Speak to you later and I’ll back in the WHYS studio on Monday.

53 Responses to “Live from Ghana: Do Africans need to ‘revolutionise their minds’?”

  1. February 1, 2008 at 11:44

    Dearest Ros and the most marvellous WHYS team : I do believe that you guys should mention the IRAQI EXAMPLE in today’s programme…. Ros, you asked whether the African Cup of Nations can change Africa… And my answer is : YES, YES, and a THOUSAND YES ! If anyone of you guys were in Baghdad on Sunday the 29th of July (the glorious day when the Iraqi National Football Team had won the Asian Cup of Nations), then you guys would’ve understood how sport can sometimes repair what politics has disrupted… Our marvellous winning has unified us all together, made us feel that we’re only IRAQIS, healed our wounds, and brought overwhelming happiness into our broken hearts ! May Ghana experience this overwhelming happiness as well ! BTW Ros, I’d love to play the ‘Magic Numbers’ game… Could you please tell me how it is played ?! :). With my love ! Your friend forever Lubna in Baghdad ! PS, to Mark Sandell : The HAMMERS are just great, aren’t they?!

  2. 2 Julie
    February 1, 2008 at 12:02

    “Do Africans need to change their attitude to work for their countries to develop”

    Theres just so many things wrong with that tagline i dont know where to begin.

    Firstly it may suprise the producers of this show that I am African and no I dont spend my days sitting in a hammock spitting out water-melon seeds. I WORK! HARD!!
    The average work day in my rural village starts at 4am to milk the cows and doesnt end till 9pm when there is no more natural light. 1.5 million people in my city Nairobi rise hours before dawn to make the kilometres of trek on foot into work. The problem here is not that they dont work hard…its that they dont work smart. In any case your first presumption that AFRICANS have an attitude towards work is nonsense.

    Secondly, you assume that there is even a link between this supposed “attitude” (laziness??) and the development failures in Africa. Pls supply evidence of such a linkage. I will be listening very keenly.

    Thirdly, it may surprise you to learn that Ghana is a “country” and Africa is a “continent”. While the Ghanians may have identified an attitude in their COUNTRY such an attitude has not been noted to exist in all 50 plus contries in Africa. So shouldnt your tagline read Ghanians and not Africans?????

    Suffice it to say I was horrified to see the WHYS email
    in my inbox. I had no idea that the BBC had gotten into the business of peddling harmful stereotypes?

  3. February 1, 2008 at 12:30

    Even before the WWII, in a reply to Eistein to suggest the ways to find peace in the world, Dr Freud replied in his famous ‘Letter to Eienstein’ that humans are instinctively prone to war as they are to love.

    Hence the only way is diversion of that instict, and the best way is through sports.

  4. 4 steve
    February 1, 2008 at 12:41

    This probably is more another show topic, but is devolution, or something even more extreme, like total independence for subgroups the wave of the future?If you look at things, Scotland will eventually be independent of the UK. Quebec will one day break off from Canada. You even hear talks about secessionist movements in Vermont and New Hampshire in the USA. Kenya is a good example, the different tribes hate each other so much they are killing each other over who they want to lead Kenya. I think maybe the world would be better off if every group had their own country, so long as they respected the soveriegnty of their neighbors, there would probably be a lot less conflict in the world. Currently the differences are huge, I remember after the first Bush election in 2000, when Gore finally gave up, the newscaster said, it was over,without tanks rolling in the street. But maybe one day that might be different. Many places in europe used to be non unified, a bunch of little kingdoms, such as in pre-Germany and in Italy. Many nations are artificial constructs, and maybe it’s time to get rid of them and have a bunch of tiny nation states if people truly cannot get along with each other?

  5. 5 Mohammed Ali
    February 1, 2008 at 13:13

    At one point in time someone asked my president, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, why does she always go to work early in the morning and leaves late. Her answer was, “I want to changee the work habit of the Liberians and to do so I must lead by example. We must stop the idea of thinking that there is a Liberian time and a world time.” The Liberian time is one or one and a half hours after a scheduled time for a particular ocassion or work.

    I think this is one of the reasons that has hamper the growth of Liberia and other African countries. In all fairness, for us Africans to reach the stage that ohers have reached, we must change our work habits and learn to live by standard time as others in the developed world do.

    February 1, 2008 at 13:34

    Hi there ,is me MAKOI MAJOK TOCH from Kampala international University,well to begins with i would like to appreciated the question asked by the person who asked it ,now is not matter of changing the attitude is matter of being Africans not be used again as tools by those who called themselves westerners or white who assumed to know more than any african do,they AFRICANS should refrained from being dependences to others like the whites,also we must adopts technological approach as the best answer to our backwardness and stop rigid cultures like marginalising women as well as to practice good leadership ,like what is happening in Kenya is against develpoment,
    Makoi Majok Toch,
    student of development studies,
    kampala international university,

  7. 7 John D. Anthony
    February 1, 2008 at 13:41

    The bottom line is: Are most Ghanians happy with the way they live? If the answer is yes, then why on earth would anyone want to change it?
    It sounds to me like they know something that we in the West have forgotten.

    John in Salem

  8. 8 gary
    February 1, 2008 at 13:56

    Hello All,
    I suspect laziness is no greater a problem in Africa than elsewhere. It seems clear that developmental problems do exist there however. I would wager most of these troubles are and have been caused by exploitation of natural and human resources by (mostly) foreign interests, with of course the connivance of the “head man” of the community. Tribal fealty facilitates this. Nationalism would act contrary to it. Thus, sport as you say “silly as it sounds,” might well aid development by fostering national pride. In addition, it is a rare spectator indeed that cannot at least grudgingly acknowledge superior athleticism in the victory of an opposing team. This, in a small but important way, helps people see common virtues and common faults in strangers, and so they cease being strange. They become “people like us.”

  9. February 1, 2008 at 14:08

    the best example for africans to look back regarding how sports can be used to revolutisionise their whole mindset is by looking into westindies and how cricket gave them an identity in the world .when they as slaves lost even their identity even from the african roots vivian richards ,the most destructive batsman the world has ever seen,and rasfaterrean singer bob marley through their exploits in cricket and music blend together their seperate island nations into one westindies when they played cricket .ghanians can take this as a model and use football for their overall change in work and other attitude which can be useful for them in this fast changing world.


  10. February 1, 2008 at 15:30

    I think it’s all up to Ghananians and Africans Like me, I don’t think Ghananians are happy with the life they live in, that implies change is a MUST but the question is HOW. Here is an answer though it looks logical. Take this calculation.

    24+8=32 yes that is the correct answer but what if you get

    88-56=32 the answer is the same but just a mere change in figures and sequence.

    It may look simple to add 24 to 8 and look much hard to subtract 56 from 88 though we are to reach to the same answer(Goal)

    so if we are aiming at getting 32 and that is our goal then we need not to look further than adding small amounts to what we already have than subtracting from the many we already have.

    Ghana and Africa need change but on adding basis not subtracting,we are after who gets it fast but not a mere getting answer after decades when you have used all types of calculators

  11. February 1, 2008 at 16:05

    Hi Ross, Good to hear from you. I wish i could be in Ghana, which is quite close to Lagos where I am vacationing.

    It was great to know you when you came with the wonderful WHYS team.

    Africans really need to change their attitude to work. But you don’t really blame them when a lot do not have proper incentives to go on, when corruption is rife at the top, when there’s basically little or no motivation. There has to be a change at the top.

    On the whole, we need divine intervention to be successful.
    That’s my own view.

    Joseph Ubek

  12. 12 geeljire
    February 1, 2008 at 17:12

    my name is mahamed geeljire most of african leaders.don,t develop their country,instead of loving the power,

    geeljire live in somaliland

  13. February 1, 2008 at 18:17

    It is true that we (Ghanains) are not known to be punctual. No. question about that. However, it might seem a little far-fetched to expect such a football-loving society such as ours to stay out of the stadium because of the need to be ‘productive’

    from Kofi

  14. February 1, 2008 at 18:17

    The Poet Carl Sandberg said:

    “Time is the coin of your life. It is the only coin you have, and only you can determine how it will be spent. Be careful lest you let other people spend it for you.”

    Tom in the US

  15. February 1, 2008 at 18:18

    I’ve never been to Africa but I think this whole time-keeping things is getting out of hand.

    As an American, I hear about African time, Brazilian time, Native American time, etc. it seems like the MOST of the world doesn’t operate on NORDIC time. Perhaps the Western mindset should GET OVER IT and adjust to being FLEXIBLE.


    *sometimes on time, sometimes not*

  16. 16 Ella
    February 1, 2008 at 18:24

    Time is a cultural phenomena. By suggesting those in Africa should “revolutionize their minds” and their time, suggests they should follow the western standard and the western perseption of time. Isn’t there another way to look at time?

  17. 17 Joey
    February 1, 2008 at 18:25


    This is a glorious show. Too bad Emmanuel Adebayor isn’t there as the hottest African footballer on the planet.

    Do people take time for granted, because there isn’t much responsibility? Given a lot more responsibility, then time can be an asset. Thanks so much for great people to come from Africa like Adebayor, Eboue, Toure, Essien, Drogba, etc. Soooo beautifulllll!!!!!

    Arsenal fan from America

  18. February 1, 2008 at 18:28

    How wonderful!! When I heard the headmaster say, “Time is money”, my first thought was, “no, time is life”. And then someone there responded to him by saying, “Time is life”. Hearing that makes me feel that Ghana is going to be just fine.

    John in Salem, United States

  19. February 1, 2008 at 18:34

    Lambrini in Athens says..

    During of the olympic games that were held here everyone in Athens was trying to be nice to people – that’s changed. Now we’ve gone back to being rude to everyone.

  20. February 1, 2008 at 18:36

    I would like to congratulate Ghana for the manner in which they are hosting the AFCON 2008, so far no ugly hitches. The effect of the tournament however is the deadly HIV-AIDS spread. With almost travelers from all the sixteen participating countries, I feel pity for some poor girls that may want to desperately cash in on the event and most of the times defenseless without any protection. I hope the country did enough to make sure that there are enough amenities such as condoms in strategic places to ensure safer sex practices.

    Chim in Malawi

  21. February 1, 2008 at 18:36

    During the Olympic games in Athens, everyone was trying to be nice to people – that’s changed. Now we’ve gone back to being rude to everyone.

    Lambrini in Athens

  22. February 1, 2008 at 18:37

    Does Africa Have to Develop?

    …mirroring that of the West? Should it privatise common resources such as water? Do the people in Africa have to accept western or western-style corporations? Is all of this what it means to be developed or civilised?

    I, personally, do not think so. I think that a civilisation can be advanced without treating water, communication, roads, etc. as if they were commodities to be owned by a private enterprise and sold to users fora price. I do not think that people have to organise themselves in an urban sense. I do not think that food needs to be part of an economic market – it can be grown as part of a community venture and treated like the common resource that it is.

    I do not think that the west should continue to impose its worldview on the rest of the world. It is time for people to live as they wish in the way that is best for them.

    -Shirley Wilson, Chicago, Illinois, USA

  23. February 1, 2008 at 18:38

    I can’t just fathom how just a month-old tournament can change the behaviour of Ghanaians with regard to punctuality. Those who are punctual will continue to be punctual whether there is a tournament or not. The crust of the matter is that some are lazy and they will have excuse for being late at all times. But when it comes to leisure or what they like they will have time for it. We have to make effort to be time conscious for time and tide wait for no man!

    Ato-Kwamina BINEY
    Winneba, Ghana

  24. February 1, 2008 at 18:40

    I believe we need a mental reorientation and corresponding attitudinal change 2wards work life generally. Europe went through the same process

    Nnamdi, Nigeria

  25. February 1, 2008 at 18:40

    Why is punctuality a big deal? I’ve traveled all over the world, and the only punctual people are the Germans. And maybe the Brits. Dominicans always talk about Dominican time. Island time. Create a passionate, honest and quality Cup… It won’t change any government or culture. The country should bring its own flavor to the cup. That’s the whole point of hosting it in different countries.

  26. February 1, 2008 at 18:40

    Uganda is a land at leisure. We go to work at leisure, serve customers at leisure, even respond to emergencies at leisure.

    Susan in Uganda

  27. February 1, 2008 at 18:41

    The economic benefits are clear – people are spending plenty of money in Accra because of the games

    Dominic in ghana

  28. February 1, 2008 at 18:42

    My compatriots are always late for everything – we ALL need to change, he says, it’s a national trait

    Eric – A Ghanaian in Netherlands

  29. 29 raymond
    February 1, 2008 at 18:42

    i think that as asian we dont have to wait for the governement, the governement is you and i, so if we put our mind t move forward the gov will move.Put the time factor depend on how the HR deal deal wtith latesness when their job is as stake african come on time so let people be under pressure especially in the public sector.

  30. February 1, 2008 at 18:42

    The cricket world was a desaster in the west indies. We prepared for much tourist and foreign exchange and never got it.


  31. 31 Justin
    February 1, 2008 at 18:44

    After returning to the US from Africa the western perception of time was one of the worst things to have to readjust to.

  32. February 1, 2008 at 18:46


    Most African countries are dependent on foreign subsidy. Till we begin to stand on our two feet and handle all of our problems and stop looking for aid from the western world, we will continue to be dependent on foreign subsidy.

    PJ Wuor

  33. February 1, 2008 at 18:51

    ALL africans are late for everything, not just Ghanaians

    Makoi from Kampala, Uganda,

  34. February 1, 2008 at 18:51

    The politicians who organise games in Africa dont have economic benefits in mind: what they want is just a distracting showcase.

    Wole, Nigeria.

  35. February 1, 2008 at 18:52

    Africans cannot conceptualize time as a resource like we can’t also with sports as an industry

    Dudu The Gambia

  36. February 1, 2008 at 18:52

    Africans are not lesser beings time factor is universal problem. Kenya remained in peace for 45 yrs.


  37. February 1, 2008 at 18:53

    Most Ghanaians today are dynamic and have a strong attitude to work. We are not conservative. The perception that we ar lazy etc is out.


  38. February 1, 2008 at 18:53

    Africa cup of nations has promoted and united many enemies around the continent and that is one of the biggest achievement.

    Peter in South Sudan.

  39. February 1, 2008 at 18:54



  40. February 1, 2008 at 18:55

    I think we in Africa need to look at the big picture when it comes to growth of our communities and economies. Our attitude is more of me and my stomach rather than service for the good of the people.

    Harold in Uganda

  41. February 1, 2008 at 18:56

    The cricket world was a desaster in the West Indies. We prepared for much tourist and foreign exchange and never got it.

    Alem in Jamaica

  42. February 1, 2008 at 18:56

    Hi my amazing friends! Lubna: I have a Q. : If Ghana wins the Cup, would you accept to make the day after a national holiday ?!

  43. February 1, 2008 at 18:57

    Most of the people contributing today on the World Have Your Say programme, are not telling you the truth. In the 1st place Ghanaians love football and all of us were happy to be hosting the tournament. The 2nd is that the cost of the infrastructure could have been less but when you leave in a country where the head of state says you shouldn’t think about the cost of doing things ie. pres. Kuffour just do them, you end up paying thrice the cost of the item. Ros in Ghana everything is politicised. do you see how all the panelists all talking. Ros, if Ghana’s 50yrs celebrations final account has not been submitted,that celebration didn’t do a thing in uniting us but rather divided us, what can this tournament do in uniting us.

    K Pelly

  44. February 1, 2008 at 18:58

    To all Ghanians: make the cup a success!

    Max Singapore

  45. 45 Chernor Jalloh
    February 1, 2008 at 19:01

    Iam worried the way in which Africans are doing business to day in their countries.Most big business men and women bring cheap goods from China to lure customers from buying the best ones by selling theirs at a rock bottom price which is now common in Africa.
    Those fake drugs that are sold in the black markets are ruining the lives of the African people.Africa is now a transit continent of drug dealers(cocaine)and that should be at the top of the lists of the police in our African countries.
    There is another big problem for African traders,when there is a feast-like christ mas,and both Id Al adher and Id Al kabir prices go up and people that has got a huge family cannot afford the high costs to buy for their children new clothes,and enough food.
    ´´Punctuality is the soul of all business.“´´God helps those who always get up early.“

  46. 46 George USA
    February 1, 2008 at 19:14

    With 1929 looming and “A Separate Reality” running the media in the USA,

    What are we beating Africans over the head about?

    Perhaps WE need to revolutionize our own minds.

  47. 47 bjay
    February 3, 2008 at 13:12

    Do Africans need to evolutionise their minds?

    Time will tell!
    We can give them the signpost along the way.
    You can take the hourse to watter, however you can’t mak them drink.
    As far asI can tell: democracy ruins it self by excess – of demoracy, becouse people are not properly equipped by aducation.

    bjay connotation with accent.

  48. February 3, 2008 at 13:45

    I think the question is too broad and assumes too much.
    The continent of Africa has seen more than it’s share of trouble, but I don’t think that every person on the continent needs to be brain-washed to conform to a particular point of view.

  49. 49 Joey
    February 3, 2008 at 16:26

    I think it’s amazing how successful Africans truly are. The African Cup of Nations is a good point that show cases that world class talent.
    Just look at the Premiership leading football club Arsenal. No less than 4 of their starting players are African nationals, and all the other stars of the league such as the black star Essien. Thanks,

    cosmopolitan Arsenal fan from America

  50. 50 K wezi M.
    February 4, 2008 at 07:22

    03 February 2008

    Ghana– Agoo! AFRICA MUST UNITE!! we know who said this…politically, economically and culturally, correct? i have not attended a series of Africa Cup matches but i wonder with all the expense on constructing the new stadiums what will become of them once the series is over? Are they to be used for match friendlies in the future? They are the peoples stadiums afterall… Two, how come Ethiopia, Kenya, South African and Afriqiyah Airways did not work with Ghana Airways and the Tourism Minister to come up with packages deals for Africans to attend were the fares were basically affordable and reasonable to the common man across all the economics zones of Africa [i.e. a flat fare equal across the continent]. This series of matches should always be a means of inter-African tourism and cultural exchange beyond the players and a small number of fans who can afford the trip as players family or government workers. All airlines should honour the others tickets where reasonable as well. In fact their should be a single eticket for African Cup of Nations valid on all of these airlines and a select number of dedicated ecomomy class seats.

    I do not feel African need to change their vast differing attitudes towards business and work. There are factors to consider.. African do not go to office towers with controlled internal environments for the most part. Thus, when its siesta time business must cease by necessity of self preservation. If there is a sand storm or locust swarm or flooding with torrential rains, one is focus to protect oneself before one’s job. Africa does need a significant upgrades in its emergency services, hospitals, clinics, etc. so that such tasks do not fall to individuals themselves [i.e. a vector controls department with workers to deal with say a locust invasion and educating farmers and famililes and advising a the government action plan.]..

    As Baba Nkrumah would say probably Africans need to commence doing more business contracts with Africans that will lead to employment and job potentials amongst the African youth and stem the second slavery [i.e. migration to Europe, Asia or Americas by Africans nonfit boats] Africans in business within the diaspora need to commence looking to do more business contracts with African businesses on the continent that lead to a non-governmental forms of FDI [foreign direct investment] in peer business to peer business development. Finally, I would like to see African youth in the western world, in cultural exchanges with African youth on the continent. Let’s take the kid who can go into a shoppe in London or New York and buy a chocolate bar to Ghana, Cote D’Ivoire or Sao Tome e Principe to a cacao farm to pick pods, dry the beans, pack them and get them to market. Let the African child experience the others world of school, libraries and too much TV

  51. 51 anne witter
    February 5, 2008 at 12:39

    I lived in Ghana for 12 years (1967 – 78), and am proud to have ‘Ghana’ flowing through my veins. I do not say this lightly, but with deep respect for the Ghanaian peoples. They are, by and large, giving, compassionate (they love children), and kind-hearted. On the other hand, they can be seen as laid-back (not lazy) and carry a why do it today when you can do it tomorrow attitude. This, whilst good for the heart, it not neccessarily good for the economy. Ghana has a lot ot offer to itself and to the world (its’ resources are amazing) but yes, they have to get themselves out there under their own steam.

  52. February 9, 2008 at 15:33

    Until recently i was in Libya for a short period though it was initially envisaged as a longer one as part of the academic assignment . I had no idea about the country except that i was selected by the Libyan board of selection committee. I took the assignment and went ahead . What really ailed me there was an errie silence that hung on the whole of the country and a sense of doom permeated me immediately . i remained unsurprised because the tales about the african nations were not all that encouraging and i did discover to my own chagrin that the African landscape was rooted into a deep sense of ennui and the development of the country concerned none .
    i was posted at Benvalid away from Misrata and that was even more alarming in the sense that it was a tribe and the culture being so primitive that it did not entail a bare semblence of modernity . Perhaps a land shut from the rest of the world with no desire to grow and steeped into sheer primitive framework. The academics seemed a distant dream and te initiation into it was like a horse that has the will to walk bot cannot rise on its own . The african indifference to education was all evident but more than that what was disturbing me most , indeed the manner in which the whole academic bussiness was conducted . To be a primitive and conservative world is not a sin but the reluctance to look beyond the window imposed a viewpoint upon them that did not allow them to seek a world of better tomorrows. Given the paucity of social texture and and the non existence of democratic structures have reduced them to the primitive creatures . Having seen all these i soon discovered the African mindset , eat , be happy and merry and consider the immediate the world as the end of the road.

  53. 53 Dennis Young, Jr.
    May 9, 2008 at 03:31

    yes, i think the people in africa should revolution
    their minds also the people around the world.

    dennis~madrid, united states of america


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